Crossing the Boundaries of Languages: Code-Switching and Code-Mixing Tendencies in the Young Generation in Bangladesh




Multilingualism, Code-Switching, Code-Mixing, Language and Media, Translanguaging, Applied Linguistics


The daily practice of mixing the mother tongue and other languages in social communication, known as code-switching or code-mixing, is gradually becoming more apparent in Bangladesh. This study explored the medium, reasons, and effects of the code-switching and code-mixing of Bengali, English, and other foreign languages in one hundred and one students of a college and a university in the capital city of this country, Dhaka, which is the fourth most populous city in the world, by applying the qualitative data collection tools of focus group discussions, interviews, participant observation, audio recording, photographs, and field notes. The findings of the research indicate that translanguaging pedagogy, the foreign entertainment media of different popular cultures, and online social media are the three most important factors that influence young people to adopt foreign words, resulting in code-switching and code-mixing in daily communication where the English and Hindi languages are frequently mixed with native Bengali language.


Ahmad, S. (2017). Motivation of the EFL learners at higher secondary level in Bangladesh: Sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, & ELT aspects (2nd ed.). Amazon.

Ahmad, S., & Rahman, S. (2021). An ethnographic exploration of the presence of English and its roles in the socio-economic development in the rural context in Bangladesh.University of Dhaka Journal of the Institute of Modern Languages, 32 (The Centennial Special Issue), 37-66.

Al Helal, M. A. (2013). Toward the impacts of Indian drama serials on Bangladeshi family system: An overview of people’s perception. e-Bangi: Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 8(2), 1.

Anchan, J. P. (2012). The debate on dominant culture and cultural imperialism. Gifted and Talented International, 27(1), 73-75.

Barker, C., & Galasinski, D. (2001). Cultural studies and discourse analysis: A dialogue on language and identity. Sage.

Block, D. (2018). The political economy of language education research (or the lack thereof): Nancy Fraser and the case of translanguaging. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 15(4), 237–257.

Bonacina-Pugh, F., da Costa Cabral, I., & Huang, J. (2021). Translanguaging in education. Language Teaching, 54(4), 439-471.

Canagarajah, S. (2013). Translingual practice: Global Englishes and cosmopolitan relations. Routledge.

Canagarajah, S. (2018). Translingual practice as spatial repertoires: Expanding the paradigm beyond structuralist orientations. Applied Linguistics, 39(1), 31-54.

Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2023). Multilingualism at school and multilingual education. In Elsevier eBooks (pp. 188–194).

Creese, A., & Blackledge, A. (2015). Translanguaging and identity in educational settings. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 35, 20–35.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. SAGE publications.

Creswell, J.W., & Creswell, J.D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (6th ed.). SAGE.

Daoudi, R. E. (2023). A comprehensive study of media linguistics: An investigation into the interplay of sociolinguistics and discourse analysis. ResearchGate.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2011). The Sage handbook of qualitative research. sage.

Devlin, T. M. (2022, January 11). What is translanguaging, and how is the concept being used? Babbel Magazine.

Dewi, T. (2021). Language use: Code-mixing, Code-switching, borrowing, pidginization, and creolization. Yavana Bhasha: Journal of English Language Education, 4(1), 34-44.

Dhaka now 4th most populous city globally. (2022, December 04). DhakaTribune.

Dolamic, L., & Savoy, J. (2010). Comparative study of indexing and search strategies for the hindi, marathi, and bengali languages. ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP), 9(3), 1-24.

Fadilah, I. N., & Astutik, Y. (2019). An analysis of Code-mixing and Code-switching used by teacher and students in English class. International Journal on Integrated Education, 3(1), 118-122.

Fishman, J. A. (1970). Sociolinguistics: A brief Introduction. Newbury Publishers.

Garcia, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Wiley/ Blackwell.

García, O., Lin, A. M., May, S., & Hornberger, N. (2017). Bilingual and multilingual education. Springer.

Girsang, L.M. (2015) An analysis of Code-switching and Code-mixing as found in television advertisement. Graduate School of HKBP Nommensen University Medan.

Helal, M. A. A. (2014). Impacts of Indian Drama Serials on Bangladeshi Social System: An Overview of People’s Perception. ASA University Review, 8(1).

Hossin, M. Z., & Mohiuddin, M. (2015). Urban youth culture in Bangladesh under the sway of cultural globalization: A descriptive analysis. Sociology Mind, 5(3), 213.

Islam, A. (2013). Hindigenization of Bangladeshi culture through the penetration of satellite TV: Paradigm of modernization vs. dependency theory. New Media and Mass Communication, 18, 15.

Islam, N. N., & Biswas, T. (2012). Influence of Doraemon on Bangladeshi children: A CDA perspective. Stamford Journal of English, 7, 204-217.

Jakobsen, M.K. (2022). Sociolinguistics: Past, present and future perspectives. Nova Science Publishers.,%2C%20gender%20differences%2C%20and%20bilingualism

Kester, E. (2021). Code-switching and code-mixing – What you need to know. Bi-linguistics.

Kim, K. & Angouri, J. (2023). It’s hard for them to even understand what we are saying:

Language and power in the multinational workplace. Critical Perspectives on International Business, 19(1). 27–45.

Küçükler, H., & Tosuncuoglu, I. (2018). Perception of learners towards monolin-gualism, bilingualism and multi-language learning. English Language Teach-ing, 11(12), 221-228.

Mateus, S. G. (2014). [Review of the book: Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism, and Education, by O. García and L. Wei]. Bilingual Research Journal, 37 (3), 366-369.

Mirrlees, T. (2013). Global entertainment media: Between cultural imperialism and cultural globalization. Routledge.

Moody, S. J. (2019). Interculturality as social capital at work: The case of disagree-ments in American–Japanese interaction. Language in Society, 48(3). 377–402.

Muniati, E. S., Suhaili, A., & Sari, G. P. (2023). Billuanglism analysis: Code-mixing of English student’s conversation. Loquen, 15(2), 79–86.

Muysken, P. (2000). Bilingual speech: A Typology of Code-Mixing. Cambridge University Press.

Muysken, P. (2011). Code-switching. In R. Mesthri (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. 301-314). Cambridge University Press.

Ningsih, O. S., & Setiawan, T. (2021). Code-mixing and Code-switching in the “Yowis Ben” movie: Sociolinguistic study. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, 4(4), 14–19.

Ningsih, O. S., & Setiawan, T. (2021b). Code-mixing and Code-switching in the “Yowis Ben” movie: Sociolinguistic study. International Journal of Linguis-tics, Literature and Translation, 4(4), 14–19.

Pennycook, A. (2020). Translingual entanglements of English. World Englishes, 39(2), 222-235.

Pennycook, A., & Makoni, S. (2019). Innovations and challenges in applied linguistics from the global south. Routledge.

Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford University Press.

Phillipson, R. (2012). Imperialism and colonialism. In B. Spolsky (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of language policy (pp. 203–35). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Rahman, H., & Rahman, H. (2020). Belonging to class: Hindi film and the formation of middle-class audience in Bangladesh. Consuming Cultural Hegemony: Bollywood in Bangladesh, 151-173.

Rahman, K. M. (2014). Globalization and cultural transformation: The case of Bangladesh. Asian Culture and History, 6(2), 1-10.

Razu, S. R., Yeasmin, N., & Islam, S. S. (2018). Impact of Indian drama serials on Bangladeshi culture: a qualitative study based on perceived situation and risk factors in urban setting. Social communication, 4(2), 59-69.

Rupayanti, N. P. N. (2022). The phenomenon of Code-switching used in daily communication by young people in Tumbu village, Karangasem. Linguistics Initiative, 2(2), 126–136.

Schendl, H. (2012). Multilingualism, code‐switching, and language contact in historical sociolinguistics. The handbook of historical sociolinguistics, 520-533.

Sultana, S., & Dovchin, S. (2017). Popular culture in transglossic language practices of young adults. International Multilingual Research Journal, 11(2), 67-85.

Takeuchi, J. (2023). Code-switching as linguistic microaggression: L2-Japanese and speaker legitimacy. Multilingua, 42(2), 249-283.

Tasnim, Z. (2018). Nature of code-switching among the Bangladeshi tertiary level facebook users. People: International Journal of Social Sciences.

Tomlinson, J. (2001). Cultural imperialism: A critical introduction. A&C Black.

Verplaetse, L. S., & Schmitt, E. (2010). Bilingualism and learning. In Elsevier eBooks (pp. 355–360).

Wardhaugh, R. (2006). An introduction to sociolinguistics (5th ed.). Blackwell.

Wardhaugh, R. (2010). An introduction to sociolinguistics (6th ed.). Wiley-Blackwell.

Williams, C. (1996). Secondary education: Teaching in the bilingual situation. In C. Williams, G. Lewis, & C. Baker (Eds.), The language policy: Taking stock (pp. 39-78). Language Studies Centre.

Wulandari, A. (2021). Code-switching and Code-mixing study in “Hitam Putih” talk show program. Vivid: Journal of Language and Literature, 10(1), 1-5.

Yuana, L. (2022). Code-switching and code-mixing #nebeng boy. Language, Edu-cation, and Development (LEAD) Journal, 2(1), 1-8.




How to Cite

Ahmad, S., Johora, F., & Alif, A. A. T. (2024). Crossing the Boundaries of Languages: Code-Switching and Code-Mixing Tendencies in the Young Generation in Bangladesh. Canadian Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 4(2), 10–31.